"LHermione, the frigate of enlightenment
Chapter 1 - 1779 : `LHermione, a Kings frigate of 26 guns of 12 pounds of canister shot is being built in Rochefort shipyards. `We instantly recommend to speed up the construction of the `Hermione` ( Marine Council order, March 20th, 1779). From Rochefort shipyards to the bay of Biscay`.
This introducing chapter details the various stages of the building of the frigate, her characteristics and salient features as well as the numerous tests, trials and inspections she must be submitted to, before being considered as fit for seafaring,
Chapter 2 - `LHermione`s 1779 campaign. The bay of Biscay,
Chapter 2 details the various stages of LHermiones test and trial campaign. She has been placed under lieutenant-commander Levassor de La Touches command.
Chapter 3 - The kingdom of France in the XVIIth century. Political situation. Frances XVIIIth century wars. Frances foreign policy.
Conceived so as to remind the reader of the home and foreign policies led by the kingdom of France in the 1770s and 1780s, the third chapter endeavours do give a summary description of the salient features of XVIIIth century France as regards the kingdom of England.
Chapitre 4 - LHermione in her time. Situation of the French Royal Navy when king Louis XVI ascends the throne. The thirteen English colonies in America.
So as to fulfill the missing details of the general situation sketched out in the preceding chapter, it has been deemed necessary to offer a detailed description of the state of the French Royal Navy of the time. In the same spirit, a brief survey of the history and evolution of the thirteen English colonies in America imposed itself for a better realization of the stakes and challenges these territories stood for.
Chapter 5 - LHermione placed at La Fayettes disposal. I sailed from France on board of a frigate the King gave me.
Returning to France from a first visit to general Washington and the Insurgents, and making a prodigal use of his influence and wealth, La Fayette keeps harrassing the French ministers (Maurepas, Vergennes) to convince them that France should provide a much more important support to his friend Washington and the Insurgents. He nourished the secret wish of being appointed commander in chief of the French expeditionary corps, but his youth and inexperience - he was only 23 at the time- incited Vergennes, then in charge of Frances foreign affairs and the King, to appoint an older and more mature commander. However, La Fayette is entrusted by the King with an important and secret mission : he will proceed as quickly as possible to general Washingtons headquarters to inform him of the minutest details relating to the navy squadron and the French expeditionary corps, under Rochambeaus command, which are bound for America within the briefest delay. To enable him to fulfill his important mission within the shortest delay, the King has placed the best and swiftest ship of his fleet, LHermione at his disposal
Chapter 6 - LHermione in the service of the State of Massachussetts. « For the protection of our trade, His most Christian Majestys frigate LHermione may cruise along the coast of this State... Powel.
According to his orders, once completed the first part of his mission consisting in conveying La Fayette into American territory, LHermiones commander, places himself and his ship in the service of M. Powel, the president of the State Council of the State of Massachussetts. His new mission is to protect the interests and trade of the State while cruising off the coast of the State, thus preventing any unexpected assault from the British fleet.
Chapter 7- La Fayette, Count de Broglie and the Kings Secret.
La Fayettes youth and the fact that he had hardly known his father, always incited him into finding out various substitutes of a fatherly figure. Among others, one of them was Charles, Count de Broglie, the chief of the Kings Secret, (the title of the time for the French Secret Service). Count de Broglie was the younger brother of Marshall François de Broglie, La Fayettes regiment commander, where the young hero had been appointed as a young officer. The evolution of the American situation, La Fayettes philosophical ideals, and his deeply rooted aversion for England (his father had fallen in a battle against a British regiment) were logical incitements for him to strive for Count de Broglies friendship and advice. On his side, the latter - in his quality of Frances master spy - was endeavouring to take advantage of the present situation in America to secure and develop a discreet yet enduring French influence in the future United States to be. It so happened that La Fayette - perhaps without being perfectly aware of it - was turned by the Count into what we would nowadays term as an Honourable Correspondant to the Kings Secrets benefit.
Chapitre 8 - La Fayette : a wind of freedom. La Fayette rejoins Washington. The reasons of his commitment. The intellectual climate in the Age of Enlightenment. Marquis de La Fayette and the Insurgents.
The reasons of La Fayettes commitment have briefly been sketched out in the preceding chapter. Chapter 8 takes it to task to enlarge upon them. In the famous Age of Enlightenment, La Fayette - with the entusiasm of youth - like many among his contemporaries wholeheartedly sides with the ideas of XVIIIth philosophers , for the diffusion of liberty and for the love of mankind. These ideals are those of freemasonry which is vastly and rapidly developing in XVIIIth century France . La Fayette is received in the Craft by his brother in law, Viscount de Ségur, then Worshipful Master of the Respectable Lodge La Candeur in Paris. He immediately goes into raptures over the Craft, all the more so that he is perfectly aware of the fact that his good friend, George Washington, is also a mason as well a large majority of characters among his friends, the Insurgents. His secret wish of joining and helping the American Insurgents is thus powefully strengthened by his reception into freemasonry.
Chapter 9 - LHermione : her 1781 American campaign. La Touche welcomes the French Squadron in Newport. The 1781 campaign. LHermiones victorious naval fight off Louisbourg.
Meanwhile, LHermione s commander keeps on fulfilling his mission on behalf and in the service of the State of Massachussetts. Nevertheless, he is quite happy to welcome the French Squadron and Regiments which king Louis XVI had promised G.Washington to send him so as to help him in his fight against British tyranny and to accede to independance. Commander La Touche plays his part in such a support while completing a brilliant 1781 naval campaign, ending in his magnificent feat of arms at the naval fight off Louisbourg.
Chapitre 10 - Yorktown : the first combined military operation associating sea and land forces. A survey of the tactics and strategy culminating in the final vistory at Yorktown.
Chapter 10 is vital for a better understanding of the facts that led to the ultimate victory of the franco-american forces in Yorktown in 1781. This part of the book strives to describe in detail how the common ideals of American and French staff officers (they were all freemasons ) - overlooking the logical differences of status, clothing, comportments, habits... between the French regular troops and the Insurgentssomehow wild militiae, eventually succeeded in forging out such a common enthusiasm and esprit de corps that victory could not possibly evade them. Besides, the tactical as well as strategic sense pervading all the members of the franco-american staff led them - quite spontaneously - to set up the first historical combined operation, associating sea and land forces which - while forbidding any English ship to enter the Chesapeake Bay - could only force the British Commander in Chief to surrender. The final act of the British reddition was - ironically enough - to gather a group of protagonists who - whether English, on one side (Lord Cornwallis), or American (Washington, Hamilton and others), French, like La Fayette and Rochambeau, Prussian, like von Steuben, or Polish, like Kosciusko on the other side - were all freemasons to a man !
Chapter 11 - The French Royal Navy under King Louis XVIs reign. Evolution of the XVIIIth century French policies as regards the navy. Financial situation.
If it reiterates the urgent necessity for the kingdom of France to endow itself with a powerful navy (which was one of the too often ignored successes of Louis XVI), Chapter 11 considers and evaluates such a necessity not from the point of view of some arrogant need for prestige, but, more prosaïcally, from the economic point of wiew. At the time, the West Indies were the principal provider of cane-sugar, cocoa, and other goods that had gradually turned into the most consumed products in European countries. British competition in that field was very harsh, for Britains national budget evinced some 65% of its receipts in the form of customs duties (indirect taxes) and depended very heavily on a permanent in-flow of importations from the West Indies. Simultaneously, France experimented growing difficulties in balancing her budget ( one of her difficulties resting in the evergrowing cost of her support to the Insurgents) and in recovering the direct taxes whih accounted for roughly 60 to 64% of the budget receipts. She was then becoming aware of the dire necessity of re-structuring her budget while drawing a much larger part of her receipts from customs duties. This amounted to developing the in-flow of importations from the West Indies, an operation requiring not merely a numerous commercial fleet, (which was the case,) but also,an important and powerful navy able to escort and protect the convoys of French merchant vessels aginst the British Royal Navy ! That is the reason why Chapter 11 carries on surveying Frances financial situation and the political decisions imposed and entailed by the former.
Chapter 12 - End of the conflict. From the Treaty of Paris (1763) to the Treaty of Versailles 1783) The consequences of the British defeat in Yorktown. Reckoning up the French intervention in America. Historical consequences.
The ultimate and most meaningful consequence of the victory in Yorktown logically consisted in the immediate access of the former English colonies to independance which turned into the United States of America. Such a new and portentous state of facts must needs be acknowledged by an international diplomatic treaty consecrating the independance of the new United States, and having the new state of fact recognize and acknowledged by the concerned parties : France, Spain, Great Britain, and the Netherlands. On the French side, one reckons up ones losses: they are heavy. however, one may expect from the recent franco-american friendship some kind of improvement of the situation, in the shape of a considerable development of commercial exchanges between France and the United States. Paradoxically, such an intensification of exchanges will not take place between the U.S. and theirmain ally, France, but between the recent enemies :Great Britain and the United States. Many reasons account for this apparently contradictory situation, yet the fact remains that this new state of things can only Frances already worrying financial situation . The logical outcome will assume the sape of the French Revolution a few years later.
Chapter 13 - LHermione : Indian sea campaign.
LHermione has brilliantly discharged all the missions she had been entrusted with during her American campaign. She sails back to France to be ordered to India where she is to fulfill less glaring missions.
Chapter 14 - LHermione in the service of the French Republic. The end of her career.
The French Republic has replaced the kingdom of France. The French Revolution has decimated the ranks of worthy marine officers. LHermioneexperiments a very sad end under the command of an incompetent officer and a hazard pilot. She is drossed on the reefs of the atlantic coast off Le Croisic and miserably sinks to her death.
Chapter 15 - Traces of the French intervention in the United States.
Yorktowns fraternity of arms, the French commitment beside the Insurgents remain alive in the American collective consciousness. President Wilsons decision to engage the USA in the First World War, Presidents Roosevelt to commit the U.S. into the Second World War bear witness to the persistance of this age-old fraternity. However, in the course of the XXth and in this rising XXIst century, under the influence of economic phenomena more or less escaping mens control , the human values and ideals that had spontaneously brought together heroes like Washington and La Fayette have been replaced by other values (?), more pragmatic and necessarily more concrete. One must hope that these two nations which - since the birth of the United States - have never been involved in an armed conflict, will recover the path to an already centuries old fraternity.
Chapter 16 - A bit of history-fiction - What would have happened had Louis XVI refused the French intervention in America ?
The foreign policy led by minister Vergennes, on behalf of Louis XVI, disposed of two alternatives to deal with a permanently adverse Great Britain. One of them was the alternative which was actually enacted in the form of a powerful military and financial support of the American Insurgents. The other one, elaborated by the Kings Secret, supported by Louis XVs Prime minister Choiseul, simply consisted in taking advantage of the mobilization of most British sea- and-land forces which had been sent overseas, to invade Britain so as to force her to accept the French conditions of some sort of New Political Deal. Far cheaper, quite concretely realizable, this utterly feasible and workable alternative might have considerably altered the history of France and Europe, and - who knows ? - of the world. However, considering what might have been merely amounts to an hazardous adventure in the field of ... history-fiction !
Chapitre 17- Influence and role of freemasonry in the War of Independance.
Volens nolens, a fact commands the attention of all those who research in to the history of the United States access to Independance : as well on the American side as on the French side, freemasonry has played a central and determining role in the matter. However, insofar as freemasonry was somehow only one of the multiple aspects of the Age of Enlightenment , one should not consider it as the unique cause of the advent of American Independance. Masonry was merely the main conveyor of the spirit of Enlightenment and generously mobilized its members - not only to support American brethren in grief, but also to help its values of brotherhood, liverty and equality to prevail. Such values which - ahead of their time - were to turn into the motto of the French Republic. Before everything, masonry has dazzlingly demonstrated to the world of the XVIIIth century that fraternity in mankind was not beyond reach.
Chapter 18 - In lieu of conclusions. A bottle overboard.
Paraphrasing the admirable Pastor Martin Luther King, both authors merely wish to take up his magnificent phrase : We made a dream ! .....
Annex 1 - Bibliography
Annex 2 - Quoted names index
Annexe 3 - Navy terms lexicon
Annex 4 - A picture of the French royal navy and of the european fleets in the XVIIIth century.
Annex 5 - Cost estimate for the building of a frigate
Annex 6 - Full text of Vergennesletter giving La Fayette his instructions
Annex 7 - Masonic Order of La Fayette
Annex 8 - Battle order of the French squadrons in the Chesapeake bay
Annex 9 - La Touches description of Boston
Annex 10 - La Touche description of Philadelphia
Annex 11 - Sources of illustrations
Annex 12 - Decision of the Congress of the United States des (August 6th, 2002) making
La Fayette a citizen of honour of the United States of America.